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Transmission Lines

One of the ways to maintain signal integrity is by controlling the impedance of traces. For high-speed designs, care must be taken to design and layout traces in such a way that the characteristic impedance of the trace is constant everywhere along the trace.
The transmission line is based on the relationship of the following:

Reflections and other issues may be caused be Impedance Mismatches. These can be eliminated by terminating transmission lines in their characteristic impedance. The most common methods are Thévenin (or parallel) and source (or series) terminations.

Transmission Line Terminations

Transmission Line Terminations

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Gore Transmission Line Simulator